There are some amazing stories of survival involving people who have sustained extensive brain damage. The one that comes to mind currently is that of Arizona Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords, who was shot directly in the head and not only survived, but has made some amazing strides toward a near-full recovery.
Our brains actually can perform â€œmiraclesâ€ when it comes to changing direction and making new and rerouted connections that bypass damaged areas. The connections in the brain are made up of a complex network of intertwined neurons, some more tightly woven than others. These tightly knit connections form a larger concentration of neuro-connectors that researchers have labeled the â€œrich club.â€
Researchers from the University Medical Center Utrecht in the Netherlands and Indiana University published a study they conducted in the Journal of Neuroscience (Nov.2, 2011) detailing the influence of the rich club within the human brain. Their research is titled “Rich-Club Organization of the Human Connectome.” According to them, not all regions of the brain are created equal.
“We’ve known for a while that the brain has some regions that are ‘rich’ in the sense of being highly connected to many other parts of the brain,” said Olaf Sporns, professor in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences in IU’s College of Arts and Sciences. “It now turns out that these regions are not only individually rich, they are forming a ‘rich club.’ They are strongly linked to each other, exchanging information and collaborating.”
The researchers are part of a group working intent to map the brain network of threads that make up the human brain. They are looking at the brain not as individual regions, but as a highly sophisticated integrated system.
Using a form of MRI called â€œdiffusion imaging,â€ professor Martijn van den Heuvel from the Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience at University Medical Center Utrecht, worked along with Sporns examined the brains of 21 healthy men and women, laying a blueprint of their large-scale network connectivity. A group of 12 strongly interconnected bihemispheric hub regions, comprising the precuneus, superior frontal and superior parietal cortex, and the subcortical hippocampus, putamen and thalamus work together to form the brain’s â€œrich club.â€
Most of the â€œrich clubâ€ areas work with a wide range of complex behavioral and cognitive tasks. â€œIf the brain network involving the rich club is disrupted or damaged,â€ said Sporns, â€œthe negative impact would likely be disproportionate because of its central position in the network and the number of connections it contains. On the other hand, if damage were to take place outside of the rich club specific impairments would more likely be affected, but have little affect on the overall flow of information throughout the brain.â€
“You sort of wonder what they’re talking about when they’re communicating with each other,” Sporns said. “All these regions are getting all kinds of highly processed information, from virtually all parts of the brain.” He added that the rich clubâ€™s interconnections are â€œsurprising and unexpected.â€
â€œThe rich club,â€ said van den Heuvel, â€œmight be the G8 summit of our brain.â€ “It’s a group of highly influential regions that keep each other informed and likely collaborate on issues that concern whole brain functioning.” he said. “Figuring out what is discussed at this summit might be an important step in understanding how our brain works.”
The National Institutes of Health are currently funding a project involving a consortium of more than 70 scientists, including Sporns, who are working together to create a first map of the human connectome. Similar projects are planned or already under way in Europe and Asia.
“People are coming around to the idea that mapping the connectome is not only technically feasible but also very important to do,” Sporns said. “It’s a fundamental step towards understanding the brain as a networked system. Networks are everywhere these days, found in technology, social media and economics, ecology and systems biology — They’re becoming more and more central in many areas of science. The human brain is perhaps the most challenging example to date.”
This is Ron White. I am a two-time USA Memory Champion , memory training expert, and memory keynote speaker. I am constantly amazed at how our brain works in order to protect itself, and to make it so that there is not one single connection that works independently, but that cannot be redirected if necessary to accomplish its assignment, like improving your memory.
Medical Press â€“ Study, A rich club in the human brain: http://medicalxpress.com/news/2011-11-rich-club-human-brain.html